Groningen ® 4 L.R. / U.L.R.

Clinical application

The Groningen was the first indwelling prosthesis. There are two versions with different, overall lower resistances. Anterograde insertion using an insertion tube is now possible. The Groningen® 4 prosthesis is used under the same circumstances as the Provox® 2 and the Blom-Singer® Classic 20fr prostheses.

Type of prosthesis: Low-resistance indwelling prosthesis
Outer diameter of shaft: 7 mm (standard) and 8 mm
Shaft lengths: 5 mm, 7 mm, 8 mm, 9 mm, 11 mm, 13 mm
Material: medical-grade silicone
Valve type: flap valve available with two levels of resistance (low resistance = L.R., ultra low resistance = U.L.R.)
Method of insertion: anterograde using insertion tube
Indication: standard prosthesis
Biofilm resistance: no
Underpressure stability: no
Non-fatiguing valve mechanism: no
Prevalence: local (Groningen, Holland)

Literature

1. Nijdam, A.A. Annyas, H.K. Schutte, H. Leever, A new prosthesis for voice rehabilitation after Laryngectomy, H.F. Otolaryngology (1982) 237, 27-33
2. A.A. Annyas, H.F. Nijdam, J.R. Escajadillo, H.F. Mahieu, H. Leever, Groningen prosthesis for voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy, Otolaryngology (1984) 9, 51-54
3. J.J. Manni, P. van den Broek, M.A.H. de Groot, E. Berends, Voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy with the Groningen Prosthesis, Otolaryngology (1984) 13:5, 333-336
4. J.J. Manni, P. van den Broek, Surgical and prosthesis-related complications using the Groningen button voice prosthesis, Otolaryngology (1990) 15, 515-523
5. R.J. Zijlstra, H.F. Mahieu, J.T. Lith-Bijil, H.K. Schutte, Aerodynamic properties of the Low Resistance Groningen button, Otolaryngology (1991) 117, 657-661
6. J.T. Lith-Bijil, H.F. Mahieu, P.Patel, R.J. Zijlstra, Clinical experience with the Low Resistance Groningen Button, Otolaryngology (1992) 249, 354-357
7. F.J.A. van Hoogen, M.J. Oudes, G. Hombergen, H.F. Nijdam, J.J. Manni, The Groningen, Nijdam and Provox voice prosthesis: a prospective clinical comparison based on 845 replacements, Otolaryngology (1996) 116, 116-124
8. R.P. Wong Chung, P. Patel, M. ter Kuers, J.T. Lith-Bijil, H.F. Mahieu, In vitro and in vivo comparison of the low-resistance Groningen and the Provox tracheo-esophageal voice prosthesis, Laryngol. Oto. Rhinol. (1998) 119, 301-306
9. R.P. Wong-Chung, J. Geskus, H.F. Mahieu, The ultra-low resistance Groningen voice prosthesis: aerodynamic properties, Laryngol. Oto. Rhinol. (1999) 120, 245-248
10. R.P. Wong, A.S. Dagli, J. Geskus, M.D. de Bruin, H.F. Mahieu, The ultra-low resistance Groningen voice prosthesis: clinical experiences, Laryngol. Oto. Rhinol. (2001) 122.2, 129-133
11. Iwai H, Adachi M, Yamashita T., Front-loading of Groningen voice prosthesis in alaryngeal patients requiring prosthetic replacement., J Laryngol Otol. 2003 Aug;117(8):633-6.